The authors also predict that autonomous vehicles will be safer and more predictable than human-driven vehicles within 15 years. To get there, they recommend “significant investment” in the various software and hardware–cameras, radar, ultrasonic sensors–that make self-driving possible.

The paper was partially sponsored by the National Science Foundation, a government agency that supports science and engineering research.

The first edition of this paper, published in 2009, inspired the U.S. government to launch the National Robotics Initiative, a program that provided $70 million for robotics research, in 2011. While it’s not yet known what President Trump’s position will be when it comes to robotics–he hasn’t yet addressed the issue directly–it’s not hard to imagine that someone who promised to add jobs in the auto and manufacturing industries might be resistant to machines that automate a good chunk of those jobs.